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Saturday, 29 December 2007

Sir George Murray of Perthshire

Sir George Murray (1772-1846), soldier and politician, was born on 6 February 1772 at Ochtertyre, Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland.

Perthshire Winter

Perthshire Winter. Tour Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland.

Friday, 28 December 2007

Weem Perthshire Scotland

Weem, Perthshire, Scotland. Weem village, just north of Aberfeldy, existed as long ago as 1235, pre-dating Aberfeldy by about 500 years. The village was a centre of religious and economic importance. Tour Weem, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Weem in 1846. Weem, a parish, in the county of Perth, 1 mile (N. W.) from Aberfeldy; containing, with the hamlets of Balnasuim, Caolvallock, Kirkton of Weem, Balwahanaid, Cragganester, Craggantoul, and Tombreck, and part of the quoad sacra parish of Glenlyon, 890 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have taken its name from the Gaelic word uamh, or uamha, signifying "a cave," a recess here of some kind having formerly afforded an asylum for persons in danger or distress, though no traces of it are now to be found. The parish is on the whole extensive, but is distributed into numerous and distant portions, and even those parts of it which are continuous are so penetrated by narrow and long stretched out tracts of other parishes, as to render it impossible to give any correct idea of its outline or dimensions. The most populous part of the parish, and that usually called Weem, is a small district on the northern bank of the Tay, bounded by the parishes of Logierait and Dull, and about one mile and a half in length. The distinct and detached portions are, several extensive farms in Glenlochay, a tract chiefly pastoral, and situated north-west of the village of Killin; the district of Auchmore, also chiefly pastoral, though containing a considerable portion of wood, and which is about two miles in length, extending for a short distance on the southern bank of the river Dochart, and afterwards along Loch Tay; the district of Crannich, stretching for two miles on the north side of Loch Tay, the property of the Marquess of Breadalbane, but formerly belonging to the family of Menzies; a continuous district in Glenlyon, several miles long, and generally called the Roros, as well as some detached farms; Newhall and Sticks, on the south side of the Tay, and between the villages of Kenmore and Aberfeldy; the ancient barony of Comrie, on the south of the river Lyon, near its junction with the Tay, likewise the property of the Marquess of Breadalbane, the ruins of whose ancient family castle stand on the bank of the river; a considerable part of Glenquaich, lying on both sides of the river in the glen, and which, though exceedingly stormy and desolate in winter, contains some of the most highly cultivated lands and most pleasing scenery in the whole county; and lastly, the portion called Murthly, on the south bank of the Tay, and about a mile east from Aberfeldy.

The parish, in nearly all its parts, exhibits a hilly and rugged surface; and the scenery is consequently highly diversified, comprehending, and harmoniously blending together, the interesting features of the picturesque and the imposing features of the romantic and sublime. The most lofty elevation in this part of the country is the mountain of Ben Lawers, the south side of which is in Crannich-Lochtayside, and the north side in Roro-Glenlyon; it is 4015 feet above the level of the sea, and the highest land in the county. The Rock of Weem, situated near the castle of Menzies, and rising about 600 feet from the grounds at its base, in some parts almost perpendicularly, is finely wooded, and is considered one of the most striking and magnificent objects in the county. It commands from its summit views of the castle and its rich scenery, with part of Loch Tay, and the lofty tops of Ben Lawers and Benmore, on the west, and Aberfeldy, the woody retreats of Moness, and the valley of Strathtay, skirted by several ranges of hills, on the east; the whole receiving an increased effect from the numerous windings of the river Tay. The chief lake connected with the parish is Loch Tay, into the west end of which, the river Dochart, rising on the borders of Argyllshire, and having received the waters of the Lochay, pours its augmented stream. Issuing from the east end, the river takes the name of Tay, a word supposed to be derived from the Gaelic teth, signifying "hot or warm," in reference to the well known temperature of the river and loch, neither of which ever freezes.

The soil is exceedingly various; in many places, light and gravelly, especially on the higher grounds. Much of it, however, is capable of producing good crops of wheat or any other grain, were it not for the floodings of the Tay, which has not yet been secured by proper embankments, the adjacent lands being distributed among many proprietors. About 1647 acres are supposed to be in cultivation, in some parts under the four or five shift system of cropping; and there are 300 acres in grass, which were once in tillage. Ploughing-matches formerly took place, at which prizes were adjudged by the late Sir Neil Menzies, a principal heritor; these matches acted with great effect in producing many persons skilful in this branch of husbandry, and much encouragement has also been afforded to agricultural improvement in general by the Athol Club, who hold their meetings every third year in the village of Weem. The cattle are chiefly the West Highland breed; and the sheep, which are very numerous, from 3000 to 4000 being kept in Glenlochay alone, are mostly of the black-faced kind. Sir Robert Menzies, of Menzies, and the Marquess of Breadalbane, hold nearly all the lands; the rent of the arable portion varies from 15s. to £2. 10. per acre, and the usual run of leases is fifteen years. The wood covers between 700 and 800 acres, and of these 190 are in the part called the Rock of Weem; the trees are mostly larch and oak, but ash, elm, and beech are also planted, and there are some native Scotch fir, birch, hazel, and mountain-ash. The rateable annual value of Weem is £4283.

Castle Menzies, to which considerable additions have recently been made, is a fine picturesque structure, the ancient seat of the Menzies family, whose ancestor is supposed to have come over with William the Conqueror, and who are now represented by Sir R. Menzies, Bart. The present castle was built in 1571, and from its situation on a beautiful lawn at the foot of the rock of Weem, in the midst of large trees of oak, plane, and chesnut, is an interesting and conspicuous object in the scenery. The house of Auchmore, some time since the residence of the Marquess of Breadalbane, was formerly of small dimensions; but the ancient portion has been modernised and greatly enlarged. It stands in an extensive park, separated on the west from the parish of Killin by a stream with well-wooded banks, and washed on the north and north-west by the Dochart, the Dochart and Lochay united, and Loch Tay. The village is very small, the parish being entirely pastoral and agricultural: the Gaelic language is generally spoken. This is a polling-place for elections; the Commissioners of Supply hold their statutory road and other meetings here, and the justices of the peace have monthly meetings for small-debt cases, and occasionally assemble for excise business. The presbytery of Weem, consisting at the present time of nine incumbencies, namely, six original and three government churches, was detached from the presbytery of Dunkeld, and erected by an act of the General Assembly, May 24, 1836, into a separate presbytery, appointed to meet in this place. There is a branch post daily through the village from Aberfeldy, conveyed by a four-wheeled carriage fitted up for passengers also: turnpike-roads run through the Weem, Murthly, Crannich, Newhall, and Sticks divisions, and good roads traverse most of the other parts. A bridge crosses the Lochay near Killin; and there is a superior one of five arches over the Tay, between Aberfeldy and the village of Weem, forming a communication between the northern and southern districts. It was finished in the year 1733, under the direction of General Wade, and is situated not far from the spot where Sir John Cope's army is said to have encamped in 1745. The produce of the parish is sent for sale chiefly to Perth, whence coal is procured, though at considerable expense, and used by the higher class; the remainder of the people burn wood and peat, the latter of which is of very inferior quality. Two annual fairs, now almost disused, are held in the village for general traffic.

The parish is in the synod of Perth and Stirling, and under the patronage of Sir R. Menzies: the minister's stipend is £150, with a manse and a glebe of five acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church was built in 1835, and contains 561 sittings, all free. Part of this parish is annexed for ecclesiastical purposes to the district church of Glenlyon, in the parish of Fortingal, and other parts are connected with the mission chapels of Lawers and Amulrie; the distance of the inhabitants, in some places amounting to thirty miles, rendering their attendance at the parish church next to impossible. The parochial school affords instruction in geography, mathematics, and Greek and Latin, in addition to the ordinary branches; the master has a stipend of £34. 4., with a house, and £10 fees. A bequest of £8 per annum by Mr. Gregory, of London, is appropriated to the instruction of the poorer scholars. There are also three schools, where the instruction is the same, partly endowed by the Rev. Archibald Campbell, a former incumbent, who died in 1740; each master receives £5. 11. per annum. The antiquities comprise two upright crosses, in the district of Newhall, supposed to have formed part of the sides of a gateway to an ancient religious edifice; also the east end of the old parish church, containing a curiously sculptured monument, with a Latin inscription, to the memory of Sir Alexander Menzies, the thirteenth of the family, and his wife, Marjory Campbell.

Thursday, 27 December 2007

Tibbermore Perthshire Scotland

Tibbermore, Perthshire, Scotland. Tibbermore Photographs. Tour Tibbermore, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Tibbermore in 1846. Tibbermore, a parish, in the county of Perth, 4½ miles (W.) from Perth; containing, with the villages of Hillyland and Ruthvenfield, 1651 inhabitants. This place was anciently the residence of several of the bishops of Dunkeld, of whom Bishop Geoffrey died here in 1249, and Bishop Sinclair in 1337. A convent for Carmelite friars was founded by Bishop Richard in 1262; and the prelates continued to hold their synods at Tibbermore till the year 1460, when they were removed by Bishop Lauder to his cathedral. The barony was once the property of the earls of Gowrie, whose seat, Ruthven Castle, is distinguished as the scene of the event called the Raid of Ruthven, an attempt made by the earl and his confederate lords to force James VI., whom Gowrie had invited to the castle on a hunting excursion, to dismiss his ministers, the Duke of Lennox and Earl of Arran, for which purpose that monarch was for some time detained in confinement. After the attainder of the earl for this conspiracy, the castle, of which the name was changed from Ruthven to Huntingtower, and the barony, were conferred by James VI. on the Tullibardine family, from whom they passed by marriage to the Duke of Atholl, by whose descendant the barony was divided into small portions, and sold to various persons. The first engagement between the Covenanters, under Lord Elcho, and the forces of the Marquess of Montrose, took place in this parish, when the former, amounting to 6000 men, were totally routed with the loss of 2000 slain on the field, and 2000 prisoners.

The parish, which is bounded on the east by the Tay, and on the north by the river Almond and the rivulet called the Pow, is about six miles and a half in length, varying from one mile to three miles in breadth; and comprises an area of about 5900 acres, of which 250 are woodland and plantations, 180 heath and peat-moss, and the remainder arable land in high cultivation. The surface is in some places boldly undulated, and the scenery agreeably diversified. A narrow level tract nearly three miles in length, and inclosed on the north, south, and west by steep banks rising from fifty to 100 feet in height, opens gradually towards the Tay into an extensive plain, through which flows a branch from that river, called the Mill-Lead, originally formed to drive some mills at Perth, and which has contributed greatly to the prosperity of this parish. The soil on the banks of the Almond is a sandy loam; towards the south-east, a tenacious clay; on the higher lands, a light gravel; and in the western portion cold and wet; though, by draining and good management, generally fertile. The system of agriculture is in a highly advanced state, and every improvement in husbandry has been adopted. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, and turnips; the farm houses and offices are substantial and well arranged, and the inclosures in excellent order. The plantations, which have been much extended, are mostly Scotch fir; and on those of older date is some valuable timber. The substratum is chiefly the old red sandstone, in some places intersected with trap-dykes affording good materials for the roads. The sandstone is also of superior quality, and has been extensively quarried: three quarries are now in operation, from which was raised much of the stone used in the buildings of Perth and the vicinity. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9996. Huntingtower Castle, the property of General Cunningham, is in tolerable repair, but at present occupied by a tenant; it does not appear to have been a place of much strength: the two towers that defended the entrance are still entire. Newton, the residence of the general, is a handsome modern mansion, pleasantly situated in grounds embellished with thriving plantations.

There were formerly several villages; but they have mostly disappeared, and the only villages worthy of notice at present are the buildings in connexion with the bleaching and calico-printing works at Huntingtower-field and Ruthven-field. The bleach grounds at Huntingtower-field, belonging to Messrs. Turnbull and Son, are very extensive; the quantity of cloth bleached annually is about 1,500,000 yards, and from eighty to one hundred tons of linen yarn are bleached for a powerloom factory in the neighbourhood. The works afford constant employment to 150 persons, of whom nearly one-third are women and children. A little below these works, and on the same stream, are large flour and barley mills belonging to the company. Ruthven printfield, also on the same water, and belonging to Messrs. Duncan, of Glasgow, is on a very extensive scale; and in addition to the calicoes, the printing of mouselines de laine is conducted here with great success. The quantity of calico and muslin produced annually averages 2,000,000 yards, of which about two-thirds are printed by blocks, and the remainder by machinery: the works give employment to nearly 400 persons, of whom about one-half are women and children. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads, of which the turnpike-road to Crieff passes through Tibbermore for nearly three miles: the parish roads are kept in excellent order. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and the patronage is in the Crown: the minister's stipend is £255. 12. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, rebuilt in 1632, and enlarged in 1810 by the erection of an aisle for their work-people by the Ruthven-field Company, is in good repair, and contains 600 sittings. The parochial school, situated near the church, is attended by about forty children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, in addition to the fees. A school has been established at Ruthven-field, to the master of which the proprietors of the works allow a house rent-free, and guarantee a salary of £50, in the event of the fees not amounting to so much. There is also a parochial library, supported by subscription.

Stanley Perthshire Scotland

Stanley Mills is an internationally important complex of former water-powered cotton mills located on the River Tay, seven miles north of Perth, Scotland. Throughout its history, Stanley has not only reflected the changing fortunes of the weaving industry but also the changing needs of society. At the height of productivity the mills employed over 800 workers, mainly women and children from Stanley Village. Tour Stanley Mills, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Stanley in 1846. Stanley, a manufacturing village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Redgorton, but chiefly in that of Auchtergaven, county of Perth, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from the village of Auchtergaven; containing 1945 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from an ancient mansion, once the family seat of the Nairnes, and now the residence of George Buchanan, Esq., is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Tay, and owes its origin entirely to the establishment of the cotton-works in its immediate neighbourhood. Previously to the establishment of these works in 1785, the place consisted only of one solitary dwelling, called the Gate House from its having been the lodge of Stanley House; but since the introduction of the manufacture, the village has progressively increased in population and extent, and is become a flourishing town. The houses are neatly built, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A subscription library has been established, which has a well-selected collection of nearly 600 volumes of useful works on general literature. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, and in many parts enriched with stately timber and thriving plantations of more recent growth. The inhabitants are, of course, chiefly employed in the cotton-works adjoining; and with a view to encourage habits of frugality, and prudent provision for old age, a savings' bank was opened here by a few persons connected with the works: this at first met with comparatively little encouragement, but the amount of deposits is now very considerable. The mills are situated at a short distance from the village, and were erected in 1785, by Messrs. Dempster and Company, who in 1800 sold the concern to Messrs. Craig and Co., by whom the mills were carried on till the year 1814, when they were discontinued. They were subsequently purchased by Messrs. Buchanan and Company, the present proprietors, under whose superintendence they have been so greatly increased and improved that they are at present among the most extensive of the kind in the country. The machinery is propelled by water, brought from the Tay by an aqueduct 800 feet in length, ten feet high, and eight feet in breadth, carried through a hill 150 feet high, of which the superincumbent stratum is supported on arches. The water has a fall of twenty-two feet, and gives motion to seven wheels of large diameter, whose aggregate power is equal to 200 horses. The works contain 40,000 spindles and 212 power-looms, and afford employment to 900 persons; they are carried on with liberality, and confer great benefit on the population of the district in which they are situated. There is a ferry across the Tay at this place, and the village has every facility of communication with the neighbouring towns by means of the high road from Edinburgh, and with the other portions of the parish by good roads kept in repair by statute labour.

The proprietors of the mills have erected a handsome chapel of ease at an expense of upwards of £3000, for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the village and the district around; it stands on the verge of the parish, and is a spacious and elegant structure with a tower, and adapted for a congregation of 1150 persons. The minister has a stipend of £150 per annum, with a house and garden provided for him rent-free by the proprietors. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The company have also erected a spacious school for the instruction of the children employed in their works, whose hours of labour are so regulated as to afford them the full benefit of the institution; the master has a salary of £20, paid by the company, and about 100 children on an average attend. A benevolent society has been established for the assistance of the poor, and is supported by voluntary subscription; the annual distribution averages £60. A funeral society has been also established, besides an educational society for assisting poor people to the school fees necessary for the education of their children. Stanley House, for many ages the seat of the Nairne family, has apparently been built at different periods; its present name is of comparatively modern date, having been given to it towards the close of the 17th century, after the union of the families of Atholl and Nairne, in honour of a marchioness of Atholl who was the daughter of James Stanley, Earl of Derby. It has been modernised and improved, and is now a spacious and elegant mansion, beautifully situated on the margin of the river Tay, in a demesne in which are some stately trees; upon the lawn near the house are two remarkably fine yews, and some beech trees of luxuriant growth. On the banks of the Tay, near the village, are the ruins of a religious house which was connected with the celebrated abbey of Dunfermline.

Spittalfield Perthshire Scotland

Spittalfield, Perthshire, Scotland, was a planned weaving village with traditional Scottish cottages surrounding a village green. Tour Spittalfield, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Spittalfield in 1846. Spittalfield, a village, in the parish of Caputh, county of Perth, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Dunkeld; containing 238 inhabitants. This is a neat village, inhabited chiefly by weavers; whence the name. It lies on the borders of Cluny parish, upwards of a mile eastward of the parochial church, and contains the school; it is the sole property of Sir John Muir Mackenzie, of Delvine, Bart., the principal heritor in the parish. In 1775, a stamp-office for linens was established here.

Wednesday, 26 December 2007

Scone Perthshire Scotland

Scone Palace, Perthshire, Scotland, has been important in Scottish History for many years, having been the crowning place of Scottish Kings between the 9th and 16th centuries and the original home of the Stone of Destiny. Scone Palace on a December morning. Tour Scone Palace, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Scone in 1846. Scone, a parish, in the county of Perth, 2 miles (N.) from Perth; containing 2422 inhabitants, of whom 1364 are in the village of New Scone, and 56 in that of Old Scone. This place is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the British language "an ascent," from the situation of its ancient castle on an acclivity rising gradually from the shore of the river Tay to a considerable height. It appears to have been at a very early period the residence of the kings of Scotland, and the place of their coronation, for which occasions the celebrated stone, from an inscription of prophetic import called the Stone of Destiny, is said to have been placed here by Kenneth Mc Alpine, King of the Scots, who finally subdued the Picts, and united both nations into one kingdom. A very ancient establishment of the Culdees flourished at this place, which attained the appellation of the royal city, till the time of Alexander I., when it was superseded by a priory of canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, to whom, according to the chronicles of Melrose, the Culdees resigned their church in 1115. Alexander had begun to erect a castle and a palace at this place, but was obstructed in his prosecution of that purpose by a rebellion of his subjects of the counties of Mearns and Moray, over whom, however, after much peril, he obtained a complete victory, and in gratitude for his success founded the Abbey of Scone, in which the inaugural stone was preserved, and many of his successors were crowned. After the death of Alexander III., Edward I. of England, availing himself of an assumed superiority over the kingdom of Scotland, put an end to the contest of the different aspirants to the throne by nominating John Baliol, who took the oath of fealty, and was crowned in the abbey in 1292. A parliament was held here in 1294, in which some measures were resolved on that excited the jealousy of Edward, who, entering Scotland with a powerful army, demanded the surrender of the principal fortresses, and, on his return into England in 1296, took away with him the coronation stone from the abbey of Scone, and placed it in Westminster Abbey, where it forms the seat of the chair of Edward the Confessor, used at the coronation of the English sovereigns.

The abbey, which was dedicated to the Holy Trinity and St. Michael, continued to flourish till the Reformation, when, after all its ornaments had been destroyed, it was, together with the palace, burned by a furious mob from Dundee, in resentment for the loss of one of their party who had been killed by a shot discharged from the palace during their work of demolition. The revenues of the abbey at this time were estimated at £1140, exclusive of considerable payments in grain. The lands and other possessions belonged afterwards to the Earl of Gowrie, on whose attainder they reverted to the crown; and in 1604 they were erected into a temporal lordship, and granted by James VI. to Sir David Murray, Lord Scone and Viscount Stormont, and ancestor of the Stormont or Mansfield family, the present proprietors. The coronation of Charles II., on his visit to Scotland subsequently to his restoration, took place here in 1651, in the church built probably by the Gowrie family, and subsequently enlarged by the first lord Stormont: after the ceremony, His Majesty returned to the seat of (the third) lord Stormont, which formed his palace on the occasion. Of this palace the Pretender took possession during his visit in 1715, previously to his flight to Dundee on the approach of the royal army; as also did Prince Charles, on his visit in 1745.

After the destruction of the abbey the town fell rapidly into decay. Some of the conventual buildings, however, were occasionally occupied by the attendants of James VI., who resorted to it for the diversion of hunting; and a building for some time retained the appellation of the Earl of Errol's stables, from its being occupied on those occasions by the earl, who attended the king as hereditary grand constable. There are still remaining an ancient gateway, and part of the wall that surrounded the old palace; to the east of which is the Cross, almost the only memorial of the original town, a pillar thirteen feet high, slightly ornamented, and rising from an octagonal pedestal, to which is an ascent by a flight of steps. The only object of interest in the old town is the splendid mansion of the Earl of Mansfield, called indifferently the Abbey or Palace of Scone, erected in 1808, on the site of a former mansion built partly by the Earl of Gowrie after the destruction of the palace, and partly by the first lord Stormont, but never fully completed, and which was taken down in 1803. The present palace is a spacious and elegant structure in the later English style of architecture, erected by the late earl, and containing a superb suite of apartments fitted up in a style of sumptuous magnificence. The drawing-room is a splendid apartment, commanding one of the richest prospects to be found in the county; the dining-room, music-gallery, and library are also noble apartments, enriched with ornaments of every variety, and a valuable collection of paintings by the chief masters, with several family portraits. The windows of the grand hall are embellished with stained glass, in which are emblazoned the armorial bearings of the family; and in various parts are disposed marble busts, elegant and costly vases, cabinets of gems, and rare antiques.

The mansion is beautifully situated on a spacious lawn, sloping to the river Tay, and is surrounded with an extensive and richly-wooded park, with pleasure-grounds embellished with plantations, and gardens tastefully laid out. Among the most ancient of the trees are, an ash planted by James VI., and a sycamore by Mary, Queen of Scots. About fifty yards from the palace are the only remains of the church erected after the destruction of the abbey, consisting of an aisle built most probably by the first viscount Stormont, to whom there is an elegant marble monument, on which he is represented in armour, kneeling before an altar, with an armed figure on each side, one supposed to represent the Marquess of Tullibardine, and the other the Earl Marischal; all most beautifully sculptured in alabaster. The chief approach to the house is by a drive through the park, over a bridge recently built across a deep ravine at no great distance from the terrace-gate on the south; there is also an ancient gateway leading to it from the east. Among the remains of antiquity carefully preserved in the palace are, an elegant velvet bed embroidered by Mary, Queen of Scots, during her captivity at Lochleven, and the bed and furniture of the chamber in which King Charles slept at the time of his coronation. Her present Majesty, Queen Victoria, attended by Prince Albert, honoured the Earl of Mansfield with a visit in September, 1842, and, after passing the night of the 6th here, returned on the day following to Dunkeld. Previous to her departure, a deputation from the magistrates of Perth waited upon Her Majesty, requesting the royal signature in the guildry books of the city, in which Her Majesty and Prince Albert accordingly inscribed their names.

The parish, which is bounded on the west and south-west by the river Tay, comprises an area of nearly 6000 acres, whereof about 2500 are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture, with some extensive plantations, and a moderate portion of waste land. The surface rises gradually from the banks of the river to a considerable elevation, commanding many richly-varied and extensive views; and the scenery, which is generally of a pleasing and interesting character, is in many places beautifully picturesque. The streams that flow through the parish are small. The Annaty, however, in its course has several falls for giving motion to machinery; and there is also a canal from the Tay, which turns several mills, and affords an abundant supply of water for some bleach-works. The soil is in parts light and gravelly, but near the banks of the river, a strong rich clay; the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips. Considerable improvements have taken place in the system of agriculture; the lands have been drained, and in many places properly inclosed; the farm buildings and offices are substantial and well arranged, and every attention is paid to the management of the dairies. The plantations are chiefly oak, larch, and Scotch fir, intermixed with hard-woods, and are generally in a thriving condition. The substratum is mostly of the sandstone formation, intersected with dykes of trap, which afford excellent materials for the roads: nodules of compact limestone are occasionally found in the sandstone quarries, of which those at Lethendy are extensively wrought; and in the softer beds occur small pieces of jasper. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9600.

The village of New Scone, which has been almost entirely built within the present century, on lands belonging chiefly to the Earl of Mansfield and to Andrew Murray, Esq., is situated on the turnpike-road from Perth to Cupar-Angus, along which it extends for a considerable distance, consisting of houses neatly but irregularly built. It has a post-office subject to the office of Perth, and a small library is supported by subscription. About 300 of the inhabitants are occupied in hand-loom weaving. At Stormontfield, on the banks of the Tay, in the north-west of the parish, is an extensive bleachfield belonging to John Maxton, Esq., in which about thirty families are constantly employed, for whose residence comfortable cottages have been erected: there is also a school, built by the late Earl of Mansfield, for the instruction of their children. These works are abundantly supplied with water by the canal, and are conducted with every due regard to the comfort of the persons employed. The fisheries on the Tay have much diminished during the last twenty years, within which period the annual rent has fallen from £1100 to £100; the fish taken are, salmon, grilse, sea-trout, yellow-trout, pike, perch, and eels.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £267. 11. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £55 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1784 in the village of Old Scone, was taken down, and rebuilt with the same materials in the present village in 1804: and an aisle was added to it in 1834; it is a neat structure, containing 638 sittings. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession. The parochial school is attended by about 150 children, and is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £20 annually. The master of the school at Stormontfield receives an allowance of £4 from the Earl of Mansfield, and £2 from the proprietor of the works, in addition to the fees; and there are also some female schools in the village. In the immediate vicinity of the present palace have been found at various times some remnants of the ancient abbey, and numerous stone coffins. In 1841 some workmen discovered part of a cell, in tolerable preservation, from ten to twelve feet in diameter, and surrounded with stone seats fifteen inches in breadth. There are also portions of the eastern gateway, flanked on each side by a round tower, and from which are traces of the walls leading to the monastery: above the gateway is a tablet on which are sculptured the royal arms. The parish gives the title of Lord Scone to the Earl of Mansfield, a descendant of William, the first earl, lord chief justice of the Court of King's Bench, who is supposed to have been a native of this place. David Douglas, the eminent botanist, who died while making botanical researches in the Sandwich Islands, in 1834, was born here.

Rhynd Perthshire Scotland

Located at Easter Elcho, Rhynd, in Perthshire, Elcho Castle was built in the latter half of the 16th century for the Wemyss family, whose descendents still own it, although it is now in the care of Historic Scotland. Tour Rhynd, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Rhynd in 1846. Rhynd, a parish, in the county of Perth, 2 miles (S. E.) from Perth; containing 402 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name, of Gaelic import, from its situation on a point of land at the confluence of the rivers Earn and Tay, was the resort of the celebrated Wallace, who, while meditating the deliverance of his country from a foreign yoke, was often obliged to take shelter among its woods and recesses. The parish is about four miles in length and one mile in average breadth; it is bounded on the north and east by the Tay, which separates it from the parishes of Kinfauns and St. Madoes, and on the south by the Earn, which separates it from the parish of Abernethy. It comprises 1700 acres, of which, with the exception of 100 in woodland and plantations, and about fifty waste, the whole is arable. The surface is varied; towards the rivers forming a tract of level land, and in other parts rising gradually till it attains a considerable elevation. From the recent connexion of some islands in the Tay with the main land, by the construction of an artificial isthmus of reeds and branches of trees to collect and detain the mud deposited at the reflux of the tide, a compact and solid bank of fertile soil has been formed, which adds both to the extent and variety of the surface. The scenery is rich; the banks of the rivers in general are lofty and abrupt, and are finely planted with trees of various kinds, of stately growth. The hills, also, are embellished with thriving plantations, and command extensive and interesting views over a wide tract abounding with picturesque objects, and enlivened by the constant passing and repassing of numerous vessels in the Tay, which here attains a very considerable breadth.

The soil in the lower districts is a clay intermixed with a rich black loam; and in the upper, of a more light and gravelly quality, but under good management rendered fertile. The water, which might otherwise lodge on the level lands, is carefully removed by draining, and the system of agriculture is in every respect much improved; the crops are, wheat, of excellent quality and raised in great abundance, barley, oats, beans, and lately potatoes, whereof large quantities are grown for the London markets. The farm buildings and offices are substantial and commodious, and every improvement in implements of husbandry is eagerly adopted by the tenants. The rateable annual value of the parish amounts to £5485. A salmon-fishery in the Tay affords employment to some of the inhabitants, and produces to the proprietors a rental of £600 per annum. There is no village. The roads are kept in repair by statute labour. Rhind is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and patronage of the Earl of Wemyss and March: the minister's stipend is £225. 10. 3., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £17 per annum. The old church was inconveniently situated in an angle of the parish, and had become dilapidated; a new church has been erected in a more convenient position. The parochial school affords a liberal education to about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £25 fees, and a good house and garden. There are some slight remains of the nunnery of Elcho, which, from the beauty of their site, form a picturesque and romantic ruin; and on the bank of the river Tay are the ruins of the ancient castle, consisting chiefly of a lofty tower, the walls of which are formed of hard and very durable stone. The tower is crowned with a battlement, the ascent to which, by a spiral staircase, is still in tolerable preservation; a new roof has been recently added to preserve it from further decay, and from the battlement is obtained a most extensive and pleasing view of the surrounding country. The castle was for many generations the residence of the ancestors of the present noble proprietor, the Earl of Wemyss and March, who takes the title of baron from this place. There is a chalybeate spring; but it is not much frequented.

Redgorton Perthshire Scotland

Luncarty is a small village just North of Perth, Scotland. The village was once famous for bleachfields. Tour Redgorton, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Redgorton in 1846. Redgorton, a parish, in the county of Perth, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Perth; containing, with the villages of Bridgetown, Luncarty, Craighead, Cromwell-Park, and Pitcairn-Green, and part of the late quoad sacra district of Stanley, 1929 inhabitants. This parish comprehends the three ancient, and now united, parishes of Redgorton, Luncarty, and St. Serf's, which are supposed to have been formed into one about the period of the Reformation; the Presbytery records, which extend back to 1619, speaking of them as at that time consolidated. The original orthography of Redgorton was Rochgorton, a form used in a charter of King David preserved in the chartulary of Scone, in which he conveys the church to the abbey of Scone. The prefix of the present name, though probably created by the corruption of illiterate pronunciation, is yet a correct translation of the Gaelic prefix Roch, or Ruach, which signifies "red." Gorton, or Garton, implies "a little field;" and the whole word, Redgorton, or "the red field or field of blood," is generally considered as having been applied on account of the celebrated battle of Luncarty, which took place here. Of the three old parishes, that of Redgorton belonged to the abbey of Scone; to the parish of St. Serf, a name corrupted from St. Servanus, was attached the barony of Huntingtower; while Luncarty was a parsonage, not connected with any corporate or collegiate institution. The district was memorable in ancient times for military operations. The Roman station Orrea was situated at the confluence of the Tay and the Almond, in the parish; the traces of it are still visible, and it is supposed to have covered twelve acres of ground. Near this spot, Roman urns have been found containing ashes and burnt bones, particularly two of large dimensions, which some conjecture to have held the ashes of Aulus Atticus, who was killed in the celebrated battle with Galgacus, at the foot of the Grampian mountains, and of Agricola's son, who died in the eighth year of his father's expedition into Britain. A Roman road from Ardoch, on the ridge of Gask, leads to this station; and the piers that supported the bridge by which the Tay was crossed, are yet to be seen in the bottom of the river at this place. Orrea continued to be an important station throughout the twenty-five years that Lollius Urbicus was lieutenant in Britain, to A.D. 161; it is supposed to have been abandoned in the year 170, and again occupied, by the Emperor Severus, in 209. Altogether, it appears to have been in the hands of the Romans for about 125 years.

But the most interesting occurrence connected with the district is the memorable battle of Luncarty, which was fought about the year 990, in a field on the banks of the Tay, two miles above the mouth of the Almond, and in which a signal victory was obtained by the Scots, under Kenneth III., over the Danes, through the valour of the peasant Hay and his two sons. The Danes, having landed a great force at the mouth of the Esk, took and destroyed the town and castle of Montrose, and slaughtered all the inhabitants. Thus successful, they were about to lay siege to Perth, then called Bertha; upon which the King, having received intelligence of their invasion, hastily marched from Stirling, and fixed his camp upon Moncrieff hill, attended by his nobles, retainers, and many countrymen who had followed him. Hearing, however, of the danger which threatened Perth, he immediately marched thither, passing the enemy, and taking up his station at Luncarty. After some skirmishing, the Danes came down from an eminence on which they had posted themselves; and a general and desperate engagement took place, which issued in the precipitate flight of the main body of the Scots, both wings having been previously routed. At this critical time, a man named Hay, who was working in an adjacent field, observing the panic of the Scots, who were vigorously pursued by the Danes, seized the yoke of his plough, and taking his two sons who were then with him, and who each seized whatever implement they could lay hold of, they all crossed the shallow part of the Tay, and by remonstrances and threatenings stopped the flight of their countrymen. By some prodigious efforts of valour, these three men checked the fury of the Danes, and gave the Scots an opportunity of rallying upon an eminence which still retains the name of Turn-again hill, when, several fortunate circumstances occurring to the Scots, in the renewed conflict, the Danes were completely routed. Their general, who was the King himself, was slain; and there is a stone yet remaining, which bears the name of Denmark, raised on the spot to perpetuate the memory of his fall. The monarch is said to have immediately given Hay his choice of the territory that could be traversed by the greyhound's course, or compassed by the falcon's flight, as a reward for his bravery. Hay having chosen the falcon's flight, the bird was let loose from a neighbouring hill, and pursued its course as far as the borders of Errol parish, where it alighted on a large stone which has since borne the name of the Hawk's Stane; and all the intervening ground was given in perpetuity to the family In memory of the battle, the Hays still bear as their arms the instrument of victory, with the allusive motto Sub jugo. It should be observed, however, that though these particulars are generally credited, there are some who dispute the authenticity of the account, and trace this ancient family to the stock of De la Haye, of Norman origin.

The parish is divided into two detached parts, the lower of which lies at the confluence of the Tay and the Almond, and the upper beyond the parish of Moneydie, at the foot of the Grampians. The former is about six miles long and two broad, and contains above 6400 acres. It is bounded on the east by the Tay, which separates it from the parishes of Scone and St. Martin's; on the north by the parishes of Auchtergaven and Kinclaven; on the south-west by the Almond, which divides it from the parishes of Tibbermuir and Methven; and in the west and north-west by the Coldrochie, the Shochie, and Ordie, which separate it from the parish of Moneydie. The upper part, called the Barony of Mullion, is about three miles long and three-quarters broad, and contains only 1200 acres. The Shochie divides it from Auchtergaven on the north; and a stream called Crachie separates it from the extinct parish of Logiealmond, annexed to the parish of Moneydie quoad sacra. These two divisions are as dissimilar in appearance as they are in dimensions. The surface of the lower district is diversified by numerous undulations, the highest of which, however, do not rise more than 100 feet above the level of the sea; the whole lands are under cultivation, and generally subdivided by thorn hedges. The ridges and knolls are to a great extent planted with wood, which abounds also in other parts of the parish; and they present in many places beautiful scenery, and command distant prospects, especially the ridge of Redgorton, which embraces a view of Scone park and palace, of the bridge and city of Perth, with its fertile valley, and of the noble Tay, of which the eye catches many glimpses through the opening woods. The soil of this division varies, sometimes changing suddenly from a deep rich loam to a cold till, and in other places being a dry gravelly or sandy earth. The upper district consists of open moorland, uninclosed field, and mountains covered with heath; the soil is a sharp, gravelly, or moorish loam; and though, if well cultivated, it produces good grain, the great elevation of the land exposes the crops to injury from early frost. There is a lake in the Barony of Mullion, but of small extent, though its depth is said to be considerable. The only streams running through the parish are the Shochie and Ordie, both tributaries of the Tay, which river, and the Almond, flow for six miles along the lower boundary.

About 5780 acres are cultivated; 600 are in grass, 860 under wood, and 440 acres uncultivated. Oats and barley are grown in considerable abundance, with the usual green crops; but potatoes form the chief article in the produce of the soil, their annual value amounting to £6358. The sort here cultivated is known by the name of the Perthshire-red, and has long maintained a high character in the London market. The cattle were formerly a mixture of different forms and sizes; but within the last thirty years they have mostly consisted of a cross between the Teeswater and the Ayrshire. The most improved system of husbandry is followed; draining, and the recovering of waste land, have for some time been regularly practised; and many great improvements, especially in plantations and ornamental scenery, are owing to the late Lord Lynedoch, who held about two-thirds of the whole parish. The woods on his lordship's property comprise nearly 800 acres, consisting to a large extent of oak, the acorns for which were selected with the greatest possible care. The rocks in the lower part of the parish are principally grey sandstone, of excellent quality for building; red sandstone is found along the channel of the Almond, and in the upper district greywacke exists to a considerable degree. The rateable annual value of Redgorton is £7713.

The chief villages are, Pitcairn-Green, Luncarty, Bridgetown of Almond, Craighead, and part of Stanley. There are bleachfields at Luncarty, Pitcairn-Field, and Cromwell-Park, of which the first is the most extensive in the country; about 2,000,000 yards are annually bleached at these works, the greater portion damask, and 120 hands are employed. There are also two power-loom establishments, two or three flax-spinning mills, and a cotton-spinning mill, in all of which business is carried on to a great extent. On the Tay are several salmon-fisheries, the value of which, however, has much fallen off within these few years; one of them, formerly worth £550, now returns but £65 per annum. The quality of the salmon is considered very superior. The turnpike-road from Perth to Dunkeld runs through the parish for four miles, and has a branch by Stanley: the Inverness mail and the Dunkeld coach pass and repass daily. There being no bridge in this part across the Tay, the passage is made by a commodious boat; the Almond has three bridges, one of which is more than 200 years old. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £189, and there is a manse, with a glebeland valued at £18. 6. per annum. The church, built in 1776, is situated nearly in the middle of the lower part of the parish, and contains 700 sittings; it is well fitted up, but is very inconveniently placed for the population in the upper district, being from seven to eight miles distant from some of the inhabitants. A very handsome chapel of ease has been erected at Stanley, the minister of which has a stipend of £150, ensured by a bond, from the manufacturing company belonging to the place, who also supply a house gratuitously. There are places of worship for members of the United Secession and Original Seceders. A parochial school is also maintained; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, and about £30 fees. There are still to be seen the remains of some round camps in the neighbourhood, with numerous tumuli, generally supposed to be the burial-places of native chiefs.

Rattray Perthshire Scotland

Rattray Parish Church, Rattray, Blairgowrie, Perthshire, Scotland. Tour Rattray, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Rattray in 1846. Rattray, a parish, in the county Perth, 1 mile (E. N. E.) from Blairgowrie; containing, with the villages of Old and New Rattray, 1918 inhabitants, of whom 447 are in the former, and 580 in the latter, village. This place lays claim to a considerable degree of antiquity, and is supposed to have derived its name, of which the etymology is uncertain, from the family of Rattray, by whom, according to records yet extant, it appears to have been possessed prior to the year 1066, and whose descendants are still the principal proprietors. Of the castle of Rattray, the original seat of that family, there are some remains on the hill of Rattray, a spacious oblong eminence to the south-east of the village, rounded at the eastern extremity, and on the summit of which the ruins form a pleasingly romantic object, conveying an adequate idea of its original grandeur. During the frequent intestine wars which subsisted between the rival factions in the reigns of some of the Scottish kings, the family, not thinking themselves secure in the castle of Rattray from the incursions of their enemies, removed to the castle of Craighall, about two miles north-west of the village, and which since that period has continued to be their residence. The inhabitants were formerly noted for the celebration of various sports, of which the most general were curling, archery, and the game called the "long ball;" and there were, till the year 1745, preserved in the parish, a silver curling-stone, a silver arrow, and a silver ball, which were severally awarded as prizes to the successful competitors in these respective games. Any parish in Scotland might contest with the people of Rattray for the prize in these games, which always took place within the parish; and the successful candidate was bound to restore the prize he had obtained, previously to the next annual celebration. The curlingstone and the arrow were lost during the time of the rebellion; but the silver ball, which has been contested for within the present century, is still in the possession of Alexander Whitson, Esq., of Parkhill.

The parish comprises a part of the vale of Strathmore, and is bounded on the west and on the south by the river Ericht, which separates it from the parish of Blairgowrie. Including a widely-detached portion of it, which lies on the confines of Forfarshire, it is about six miles and a half in extreme length and nearly two miles in mean breadth; comprising about 6500 acres, of which 4500 are arable, 450 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moor and waste. The surface towards the south, for some breadth along the banks of the river, is tolerably level; but towards the north it increases in elevation till it nearly reaches the village, beyond which it rises by steep acclivities into rugged and precipitous hills, forming part of the chain which, some miles beyond the limits of the parish, terminates in the Grampian range. The only river connected with the parish is the Ericht, which has its source in some springs issuing from the Grampian hills, and, flowing southward, receives the waters of the Ardle, a considerable mountain stream from the north-west. After this, passing the mansion of Craighall, and taking an eastern course, it bounds the parish on the south, and about two miles off falls into the Isla near Cupar-Angus, and flows in conjunction with that river into the Tay. The Ericht in the winter often overflows its banks, and after rains in the autumn, also, sometimes inundates the adjacent lands, occasioning much damage to the crops; it abounds with trout, affording good sport to the angler, and salmon are found in it during the season. In its course, which is rapid, it forms the beautiful cascade of Keith, where the water, obstructed by a rock, falls into a pool beneath, on which is a salmon-fishery belonging to Lord Wharncliffe. The general scenery, from the variety of the surface and the belts of wood and plantations scattered over it, is pleasingly diversified; and from the numerous hills are obtained some fine prospects over the fertile vale of Strathmore and the surrounding country.

The soil on the hills and uplands is thin, cold, and moorish, and in the lower parts dry and gravelly; but, though in some places encumbered with loose stones, it is generally fertile, producing favourable crops of oats, barley, and wheat, with potatoes and turnips, and the usual grasses. In the higher parts is a common of about 300 acres, called the Broad Moss, fit only for cutting turf for fuel. The system of husbandry is improved, but there is little in the parish to require agricultural notice; the majority of the farms are of very moderate extent, and those on the higher lands are employed mainly for the pasture of cattle and sheep. The cattle are of the Strathmore and Angus breeds, with a mixture of the Teeswater; they are mostly bought in at the neighbouring fairs, and when two or three years old are fed for the butcher, or sold to dealers who send them to the Glasgow market. The plantations consist chiefly of larch and Scotch fir; they are under careful management, and are regularly thinned, and the produce sold for fuel. Along the river are coppices of oak, which is cut down at a proper age, principally for the bark, which yields a profitable return. The rocks on the banks of the Ericht, near Craighall, rise perpendicularly to the height of 200 feet, and are of rugged and formidable appearance; they consist of enormous masses of whinstone, which have never been wrought for any purpose. The ascent to the summit, even where least precipitous, is difficult and dangerous; and a few trees only have been planted on the surface. Craighall, the seat of Robert Clerk Rattray, Esq., is a spacious castellated mansion, romantically situated on the summit of one of these rocks, 214 feet in height, overhanging the river, and commanding from the drawing-room windows an extensive view of the singularly impressive scenery of the adjacent country, marked with features of wild sublimity and romantic grandeur. This venerable mansion, of which the original date is not known, is accessible only from the south; it was internally remodelled by the late Baron Rattray, who added also, to the front, two turrets at the angles, corresponding in character to those which flank the entrance gateway in the centre. Parkhill is a handsome modern mansion, beautifully situated on the brow of a hill to the north of the village, and embracing a richly diversified prospect over the picturesque and fertile vale of Strathmore.

The village of Old Rattray, which is evidently a place of considerable antiquity, is irregularly built on the southern declivity of a hill, and has greatly increased within the present century, from the facilities of water-power afforded by the river, over which, some miles above the village, a bridge has been constructed by Colonel Sir W. Chalmers. This bridge, which affords communication between the portions of that gentleman's lands on both sides of the stream, consists of a horizontal platform of iron, supported by pillars of stone at each extremity, and is of sufficient breadth for a carriageroad, and a footpath on each side of it. New Rattray is neatly built, extending along the road to Blairgowrie, and is nearly contiguous to the village of Old Rattray; it was commenced in 1809, and from the pleasantness of the scenery, and the healthfulness of its situation, is a favourite resort for invalids from various parts, for whose accommodation there is an excellent inn. The linen manufacture is carried on to a very considerable extent. There are not less than eight mills for the spinning of flax, which are driven by water-wheels of from eight to twenty horse power, and afford employment to 650 persons, inhabitants of the villages. In one of these mills, called the Erichtside mill, are also sixty-seven power-looms constantly employed in the weaving of linen-cloths of various qualities; and almost all of the inhabitants of the parish, when not engaged in agricultural pursuits, are occupied in hand-loom weaving at their own dwellings for the houses of Dundee. The handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the district are also carried on in the villages, in which there are a few shops. Fairs, chiefly for the sale of cattle, are held on the last Fridays in April and August, on a common to the west of the village, and are in general numerously attended. Letters are received daily from the post-office of Blairgowrie, in the immediate vicinity; and facility of communication is maintained by the military road to Fort-George, by Braemar, which passes through the parish, and by the turnpike-road to Alyth and Kirriemuir. The rateable annual value of Rattray is £5229. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £157. 9. 2., of which nearly onehalf is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum: patron, the Earl of Kinnoull. The church, built in 1820, to replace the ancient church, which had fallen into decay, is a substantial and handsome structure with a square tower, and contains 620 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church and United Secession. The parochial school, situated near the church, in the village of Old Rattray, is attended by about sixty children; the master receives a salary of £34. 4. 4. per annum, with a house, and the school fees average £15. On an eminence half a mile to the east of the village, and also on another about a mile to the north of it, are the remains of a Druidical circle. Near the former were lately discovered in a field of hard gravel, two deep trenches in the form of a crescent with the horns towards the east, having the sides formed with rough stones, and covered with large flags of whinstone, and containing earth of a dark colour intermixed with fragments of burnt bones. There was also till within the last few years, to the east of the village, a large cairn of earth and stones in alternate layers, the base of which covered about half an acre; every layer of earth contained a mixture of burnt bones and wood, and in the centre of the cairn was found a stone coffin holding half-calcined bones and a warlike weapon nearly resembling a dagger.

Black Perthshire Highland Cow

Came across this wonderful Black Perthshire Highland Cow today, just South of the Fair City of Perth, Scotland. Tour Perth, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland.

Sunday, 23 December 2007

Pitcairngreen Perthshire Scotland

Pitcairngreen, Perthshire, Scotland. Tour Pitcairngreen, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Pitcairngreen in 1846. Pitcairngreen, a village, in the parish of Redgorton, county of Perth, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Monedy; containing 279 inhabitants. This is a thriving village, of modern erection, built on the estate of the Graham family, of Balgowan; it is situated in the vicinity of the Almond river, and largely partakes in the extensive manufactures of the parish, of which linen is the staple article. One of three extensive bleachfields within its limits is established here, and there is also a large flax-spinning mill on the Almond. Near the village are the remains of a circular camp, probably a camp of the natives for the purpose of watching the motions of the Romans, who had an important station at Orrea, about two miles distant; it stood upon an eminence, and commanded a view, not alone of Orrea, but of the whole line of approach to that station for several miles.

Orwell Perthshire Scotland

The original Orwell Kirk was on the north banks of Loch Leven. This church is now a ruin and the graveyard no longer tended. In 1729 this new church was built in the village of Milnathort. It is still in use today. Tour Orwell, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Orwell in 1846. Orwell, a parish, in the county of Kinross, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Kinross; containing, with the villages of Middleton and Milnathort, 2715 inhabitants. This place derives its name, of Gaelic origin, from an estate so called on the banks of Loch Leven; and the term is supposed to be descriptive of the parish as situated in a green or fertile retreat. The parish is about seven miles and a half in length, and three miles and a half in breadth; it is bounded on the south by the loch, and comprises 13,500 acres, of which 8000 are arable, about 700 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface is finely undulated, rising in some places into gentle eminences, and on the north having a gradual ascent to the Braes of Orwell, and thence to the Ochil hills, which are partly within the parish, and vary from 1000 to 1100 feet in height above the level of the sea. The principal river is the North Queich; it rises in the higher land, and falls after a course of five or six miles into Loch Leven, which also receives various smaller streams that intersect the parish. This river abounds in trout, with which it supplies the lake; perch, pike, and eels, also, are found occasionally. The lands abound with springs of excellent water, and wells may be easily formed at a small depth below the surface. The scenery is finely varied, and enriched with thriving plantations; and there are some few trees of majestic growth still remaining; but the river is not distinguished by any striking features, though in its progress through the hilly part of the parish it displays some pleasing falls diversifying the landscape. The soil in the more level lands is mostly of a clayey nature, intermixed sometimes with sand or gravel, but in the higher districts is of lighter quality, and well adapted for potatoes and turnips; a small portion of rich loam is also found in some parts. The crops are, oats of every variety, barley, of which the quality has been much improved within the last few years, and a small quantity of wheat on some of the richest lands, with potatoes and turnips. The system of husbandry is in a very advanced state; the lands have been well drained, and inclosed partly with stone dykes and partly with hedges of thorn. The farm houses and offices have been also greatly improved; those of more recent erection are substantially built; and threshing-mills have been erected upon most of the farms, several of which are propelled by water-power. The hills afford good pasturage for cattle, which are generally of the Fifeshire breed. The woods consist principally of oak and ash; and the plantations, of larch, and spruce and Scotch firs, intermixed with various kinds of forest-trees. The chief substrata are, the old red sandstone, whinstone, varying in colour, and claystone-porphyry; the sandstone is quarried in several parts, as is likewise the whinstone, which is used for the construction of stone dykes. A post-office has been established at Milnathort (which see), as a branch of the principal office, and facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is maintained by roads kept in good order by statute labour, and by turnpike-roads which pass for fourteen miles through the parish. A weekly grain-market is held on Wednesday, and several fairs for cattle take place during the year. The rateable annual value of Orwell, according to the returns made under the incometax, is £12,533.

The parish is within the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife, and in the patronage of Sir Graham Montgomery, Bart., of Stanhope: the stipend is £156, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, erected in 1729, is an exceedingly plain cruciform edifice, but conveniently situated, standing on a knoll above the village of Milnathort; it is adapted for a congregation of 646 persons. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod: a chapel, which formerly belonged to the Original Burghers, is now a chapel of ease to the Established Church. The parochial school, situated at Milnathort, affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with £40 fees, and a house and garden. A branch of the Kinross Savings' Bank has been established here, which tends in some degree to diminish the number of applications for parochial aid. On the shore of Loch Leven are the remains of the old parish church, once an appendage of the monastery of Dunfermline; and near the village of Milnathort are the remains of Burleigh Castle, anciently a place of considerable importance and of great strength. Little more, however, than a portion of the inclosing rampart is remaining; all the timber has disappeared, and among it an ash of large dimensions, in the hollow trunk of which one of the lords Burleigh concealed himself from the pursuit of justice, but was at length apprehended and sentenced to be beheaded for murder. Upon a branch of the Ochil hills is Cairn-a-Vain, formerly an immense heap of stones raised over the grave of some warrior chief, but now much reduced by removing the stones for building dykes to inclose the lands: in the centre of it was found a rude stone coffin, containing an urn filled with burnt bones and charcoal. Urns of clay, containing burnt bones and ashes, have been discovered in various other places along the ridge of these hills. On the lands of Orwell farm are two upright stones about eight feet in height, supposed to be part of a Druidical circle; and near the same spot, stone coffins have been occasionally found, and great quantities of calcined bones and ashes are frequently turned up by the plough, at a depth of a foot and a half below the surface, and covered by a layer of loose small stones. Dr. Young, in whose arms the gallant General Sir Ralph Abercromby expired, was a native of this parish; and Dr. Coventry, late professor of agriculture in the university of Edinburgh, was proprietor of the estate of Shanwell.

Saturday, 22 December 2007

Muthill Perthshire Scotland

Muthill Church is an 12th century ecclesiastical site south of Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland. Tour Muthill, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Muthill in 1846. Muthill, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the village of South Bridgend, and part of the late quoad sacra parish of Ardoch, 3067 inhabitants, of whom 1089 are in the village of Muthill, 3 miles (S.) from Crieff. This place appears to be of considerable antiquity; and its name, derived from two Gaelic words signifying "a station for the dispensation of justice," would confer upon it a degree of importance in the ancient feudal times. A society of Culdees was established here in the earliest period of Christianity in Britain. During the middle ages, Muthill seems to have been the head of a deanery; and after the Reformation, it was the seat of the presbytery prior to its removal to Auchterarder. The parish is of very great extent, comprising more than 26,000 acres, of which about 11,560 are arable, 2400 woodland and plantations, and the remainder uncultivated and waste land. The surface rises gradually from the northern and southern boundaries towards the centre, where it attains a considerable elevation, forming two nearly parallel ridges from east to west, and dividing the parish into what are called the Muthill and Ardoch districts. The highest point of these ridges is the hill of Torlum, which is about 1400 feet above the level of the sea, and beautifully planted with evergreens; it is a conspicuous and interesting feature in the scenery, and commands an extensive and richly-varied prospect over the different portions of this large parish, which in some parts is in the best state of cultivation, and in others comparatively wild and barren. The scenery is enlivened by several rivers that flow through the lands. The principal is the Earn, which issues from the lake of that name, and in its winding course forms a boundary between part of this parish and the lands of Innerpeffray, the estate of David, Lord Madderty, of whose castle there are considerable remains; its course, though generally uniform and moderate, is occasionally disturbed by torrents descending from the hills. The river Machony has its source in the hills of Blair-in-roan, pursues its way between the two ridges that divide the parish, and, after receiving numerous tributary streams in its progress, falls into the Earn near Kinkell. On the Ardoch side of the parish is the Knaik, which rises in Glenlich-horn, and, passing the camp at Ardoch, joins the river Allan, which has its source in Blackford parish, and flows into the Forth near Stirling. These rivers all abound with excellent trout, and in the Earn are found also pike, whiting, and salmon. There are several lakes, of which one called Balloch, is situated at the base of Torlum Hill. Loch Drummond, a beautiful sheet of artificial formation, is about a mile in length and half a mile broad; it is bounded on one side by abrupt masses of rock rising to the height of nearly seventy feet, and on the others by steep banks richly wooded. It is the resort of various aquatic fowl, and forms a picturesque feature in the landscape. There are also numerous wells, affording an ample supply of water, and which in ancient times were held in great veneration for their supposed efficacy in curing diseases.

The soil varies greatly; the lands near the Earn and the Allan are chiefly a rich and light loam, with occasional intermixtures of marl; while in other parts is a strong sandy soil, with a mixture of gravel, and in others again an unproductive moorland. The hills afford good pasture, and there is also a due proportion of excellent grass land. On most of the lands are thriving plantations, of which the largest is that round Torlum Hill, comprising more than 600 acres of Scotch fir: larch, birch, chesnut, and limes, with some oak, are the prevailing kinds. The system of agriculture has been much improved under the auspices of the heritors, most of whom reside upon their estates; draining has been practised extensively, and large portions of marshy land have been reclaimed, and brought into a state of profitable cultivation. The chief crops are barley and oats, with some wheat, and the rotation plan of husbandry is general; turnips have been lately much cultivated, and, by the use of bone-dust and guano, are abundant. Considerable attention is also paid to the breeding of cattle. The substrata are chiefly sandstone of several varieties, and whinstone of a blackish colour; the former is quarried for building, and the latter for the roads; and in the peat-mosses, and also embedded in the marl, various fossil remains have been found. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,000. Drummond Castle, the occasional residence of the family of Drummond, is situated near the site of a former castle, which is said to have been besieged by Cromwell, and, with the exception of what still remains, to have been demolished at the Revolution: the present seat is a substantial and handsome modern mansion. The grounds, which are well laid out, contain some fine specimens of well-grown timber, and the gardens almost every variety of the choicest flowers and plants. The castle was visited by Her Majesty, during her tour in Scotland, in September 1842; she arrived here on the evening of Saturday, the 10th, and remained until Tuesday, the 13th, when she departed for Stirling. The village of Muthill is on the great southern road, which passes through the parish; it is neatly built, and the surrounding hills add much to the beauty of its scenery. It had formerly a market, which, from the proximity of the market-town of Crieff, has been for some time discontinued. The inhabitants are chiefly occupied in agricultural pursuits, and in weaving cotton for the manufacturers of Glasgow; and until recently three distilleries employed a considerable number of persons, and in the aggregate produced about 100,000 gallons of whisky annually. Two cattle-markets are held annually at the village of Braco, in the district of Ardoch. A subscription library, comprising a good collection, is maintained in the parish; and there is also a readingroom, in which are several valuable publications on agriculture.

Muthill is within the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling, and patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £240. 17. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, erected in 1828, at an expense of nearly £7000, is a handsome and spacious edifice in the later English style, adapted for a congregation of 1600 persons. In the district of Ardoch is a chapel of ease, built in 1780; and within the last few years a village has risen up near it, which is rapidly increasing in population and extent. There is also a place of worship for members of the United Secession within a mile and a half of the village; and in Muthill are a Free church and an Episcopalian chapel. The parochial school affords a liberal education; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with £16. 10. fees, and a good house and garden: a schoolroom on a more enlarged scale has been recently built. There are also three schools in the parish partly endowed by Lady Willoughby de Eresby. At Innerpeffray is a library for the use of ministers and students, founded by Lord Madderty, who also endowed it with a small salary for the librarian, who is further supported by the fees of a school which he keeps in part of the building. More than sixty of the poor are regularly supplied with meal, clothing, and fuel by Lady Willoughby, who also pays their rent. In the lands of Innerpeffray are the remains of an old church, now the burial-place of the families of Perth and Strathallan; and near the river are the ruins of the ancient castle of Madderty. The ruins of the castle of Drummond are romantically situated at the base of Torlum Hill, and on an elevated and rocky site; the south wing, the principal portion, is now converted into an armoury. The camps at Ardoch, the most entire in the country, and evidently of Roman origin, are supposed to have been the chief post of that people in this part of Britain. The intrenchments of the main station inclose an area 420 feet in length and 375 in breadth; and three of its principal entrances are still to be distinctly traced. Adjoining this station are three camps of more extensive dimensions, the largest of which, 2800 feet long and 1950 wide, is supposed to have been that where Agricola concentrated his army previously to his decisive battle with Galgacus, which is said to have taken place at Blair-in-roan. Another of these camps, styled the procestrium, and of later construction than the great camp, was of oblong shape, 1060 feet by 900, and capable of containing 4000 men. The remaining camp, to the west of the great one, is likewise of oblong form, measuring 1910 by 1340 feet, and would afford accommodation to 12,000 men; it is very entire, higher in position than the other camps, and, from its prominently marked features, is well worth the examination of the antiquary. The Rev. John Barclay, founder of the sect of the Bereans, was born at Muthill.

Moulin Perthshire Scotland

Moulin, Perthshire, Scotland. Tour Moulin, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Moulin in 1846. Moulin, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Kinnaird and Pitlochry, and part of the late quoad sacra parish of Tenandry, 2017 inhabitants, of whom 172 are in the village of Moulin, 13 miles (N. W. by N.) from Dunkeld. This place, of which the name is of doubtful etymology, is of considerable antiquity; and formed part of the possessions of David, eleventh earl of Atholl, upon whom King Robert Bruce conferred the office of constable of Scotland. On David's revolting against his sovereign, his estates were forfeited; and the barony of Moulin was granted by the king to Sir Neil Campbell and his wife, sister to Bruce, whose son John was subsequently created Earl of Atholl by David II., but died without issue at the battle of Halidon-Hill, in 1333, when the title and estates again reverted to the crown. The pass of Killiecrankie, in this parish, is memorable for the celebrated battle which took place there in 1689, between the English army under General Mackay, and the Highland forces commanded by Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, in support of the exiled James II. of England. In this battle, which terminated in favour of the Highlanders, not less than 2000 of Mackay's forces were slain, and Dundee was so severely wounded that he died soon after, and was interred in the church of Blair-Athol.

The parish is naturally divided into the nearly parallel districts of Atholl and Strathardle, separated from each other by a hill of inconsiderable height, about four miles in extent. The district of Atholl is about seven miles in length, and from five to seven in breadth; and that of Strathardle is eight miles in length, and nearly seven miles in breadth. The surface is diversified with mountainous heights, of which the most conspicuous is Bein-Breacaidh, rising to an elevation of nearly 3000 feet above the level of the sea; and with numerous verdant hills of gentler aspect, which add much to the beauty of the scenery. The vale of Atholl is watered by the Tummel and the Garry rivers, which unite their streams within the limits of the parish; and Strathardle, by the rivers Briarachan and Ardle, of which the former rises in the parish, and, uniting with the Arnat, forms the Ardle, whence the Strath has its name. The Garry and the Tummel are both impetuous streams, and in their course make numerous cascades; the most striking is the fall on the Tummel, near its confluence with the Garry at Faskally. The Garry runs for nearly three miles through the wildly romantic pass of Killiecrankie, between precipitous masses of rugged rock, which overhang the stream and obstruct its current, at times concealing it from view by thick branches of trees that have taken root in the clefts of the rocks. Both these rivers abound with trout; and during the season, salmon and grilse are found in great plenty, and of excellent quality. The only lake is Loch Broom, which is also much frequented by anglers. The parish is chiefly pastoral; about 3000 acres are arable, 2000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder mountain pasture and moorland. The soil along the banks of the rivers is light and sandy, but in other parts a deep loam of great fertility; and for a considerable breadth around the village of Moulin is a tract of the richest land in the county, producing exuberant crops of grain of every kind. The system of husbandry is much improved, and the regular rotations are observed according to the nature of the lands. The hills afford good pasturage for sheep, of which more than 13,000 are reared in the parish, chiefly of the black-faced breed, with a few of the Leicestershire; and the cattle are of the Highland breed, with a few of the pure Angus and Ayrshire. The horses reared are generally a cross between the native Highland and Clydesdale breeds. There are extensive remains of natural wood, consisting chiefly of oak and birch, of which latter there are numerous fine specimens in the pass of Killiecrankie; the plantations, also very extensive, are of oak, ash, beech, birch, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, for all of which the soil appears to be well adapted. The substrata are, limestone, hornblende, mica-slate, of which also the rocks are mainly composed, and granular quartz; and large masses of marble of fine crystalline texture, and boulders of granite and quartz, are found in various places. The principal mansion-houses are, Edradour, Faskally, Urrard, Balnakeilly, Baledmund, Kindrogan, and Dirnanaen, most of which are elegant structures, beautifully situated in demesnes embellished with woods and plantations, and commanding finely-varied prospects. The rateable annual value of Moulin is £8117.

The village of Moulin stands in the southern portion of the parish, in the heart of a district abounding with picturesque scenery, and has a pleasingly-rural aspect; it consists of well-built cottages, and is inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in agricultural pursuits. Facility of communication is afforded by the great north road from Perth to Inverness, which passes through the parish; and a fair is held at Moulin on the first Tuesday in March, for the sale of horses and the purchase of seed corn. There is a post-office in the village of Pitlochry. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £150. 14. 3., of which one-third is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £26. 13. 4. per annum; patron, the Duke of Atholl. The church, erected in the village of Moulin, in 1831, is a neat substantial structure containing 650 sittings. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, and £2 in lieu of garden; and the school fees average about £10, to which may be added £7 allowed by the Commissioners of Bishops' Rents, for the gratuitous instruction of poor children. There are also six Sunday schools, and a school for females at Pitlochry, of which the mistress receives £5 per annum from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. In the parish are numerous upright stones, supposed to be Druidical remains. Near the village of Moulin are the ruins of an ancient castle, of which the origin is unknown; it is a quadrilateral structure of stone, eighty feet long and seventy-six wide, and was formerly surrounded by a lake, which has been drained, and the ground recently covered with plantations. There are also vestiges of Pictish houses. Coins of Edward I. of England, and Alexander III. of Scotland, were discovered some years since on the farm of Stronchavie; and in the pass of Killiecrankie, broken swords and fragments of military weapons have been found, some of which are deposited in the mansion of Urrard.

Monzie Perthshire Scotland

Monzie Church, Perthshire, Scotland. The current building dates from 1831 and in 1843 the Congregation was led out for the Disruption by the Rev. John Reid Omond. Tour Monzie, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Monzie in 1846. Monzie, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Chapelhill and Herriotfield, 1261 inhabitants, of whom 118 are in the village of Monzie, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Crieff. The name Monzie is derived from the Gaelic Moighidh, signifying "a level tract." There are few events of importance connected with the place; but numerous relics of antiquity, of both Druidical and Roman origin, are still visible, although all historical memorials identifying them with any particular transactions worthy of note are entirely lost. The parish is twelve miles long and about seven in extreme breadth, and contains about 50,000 acres. It is bounded on the north by Dull, Weem, and Kenmore parishes; on the south by Crieff; on the east by Fowlis; and on the west by Monivaird and Comrie. This is a mountainous district lying on the south side of the Grampian hills, the only habitable portions being two narrow valleys called the Back and the Fore part, which are separated from each other by a ridge of lofty hills four miles broad. Only about one-third of the land is arable; the remainder is covered with heath, coarse grass, and moss, appropriated to the pasturage of vast flocks of sheep. The lands are watered by the Almond, the Shaggie, the Keltie, and the Barvick, the first of which, a considerable river, running for about twelve miles along the boundary of the parish from east to west, falls into the Tay two miles above Perth. All the streams are stocked with trout, and in the Almond there is likewise a plentiful supply of sea-trout. Like most of the Highland districts, the parish is famed for its cascades, which are numerous in all the streams, and of which the Barvick especially exhibits an almost uninterrupted succession throughout its whole course, the effect being greatly increased by the abrupt, lofty, and, in many places, well-wooded banks of rock between which the stream passes.

The soil is light and dry, and tolerably fertile, though in general rather shallow: the usual white and green crops are raised. The sheep are the Highland or blackfaced, and to their improvement great attention is paid; the cattle are mostly a cross between the Highland and Lowland, but a few Ayrshire cows are kept for the dairy. The character of the husbandry is good, and considerable advances have been made in draining and trenching; but the expense of procuring lime, which is brought from Perth, a distance of from fourteen to seventeen miles, is a serious impediment to agricultural improvement. Many of the farm-steadings have lately been rebuilt on a better plan; but much in this respect remains yet to be done. The parish being to a great extent pastoral, there is much land uninclosed; where fences have been erected, however, they are in general in good condition. The prevailing rocks are slate, sandstone, and limestone: there are two slate-quarries, and one of superior sandstone of a red colour, and of great durability; but the limestone, on account of its inferior quality and its distance from coal is not wrought. The mansion-houses are, Monzie Castle, the residence of Campbell of Monzie, a massive square building with a circular turret at each corner, erected in 1806, and containing a superior collection of paintings, ancient armour, &c.; Cultoquhey House, the seat of the Maxtones, an elegant edifice, from a design by Smirke, erected about eighteen years since; and Glen-Almond Cottage, the occasional residence of the Patton family, also a modern and comfortable house. Monzie and Gilmerton are the chief villages: the first, often called the Kirkton, consists of a cluster of cottages, nestling in a sunny corner round the church; the other, the larger of the two, has sprung up within these few years. There are a few hand-loom weavers. A fair for sheep and general traffic is held at Monzie on the 22nd of August: a fair on the 23rd, formerly held here, has been transferred to the neighbouring parish of Crieff, and now makes one of its eight fairs. Oats and barley are sent hence to Crieff, and potatoes to London, by way of Perth. The Glen-Almond road, one of the grand passes into the Highlands, runs through the parish, besides which there are several roads for local convenience. The rateable annual value of Monzie is £4300.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £159, of which a tenth is paid by the exchequer; and there is a manse, with a glebe of twelve acres of superior land. The church, a neat but unpretending edifice, was built in 1830-1, and contains sittings for 512 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, French, and geometry, with the usual branches of education; the master has a house, a salary of £34, and about £30 per annum in fees. At a small distance from the village of Monzie, upon an eminence called Knock-Durroch, "the oaken knoll," is an intrenchment of an oval form, supposed to be Roman; and on the estate of Cultoquhey is another of the same kind, but considerably larger. The principal relic of antiquity, however, is the camp at Fendoch, thought to have been constructed by the soldiers under Agricola or one of his successors. It is situated upon tableland, near the mountain pass called the Small Glen, and not far from the fort of Dunmore, which had the complete command of the passage; it covers forty-five acres of ground, and is said to have been capable of containing 12,000 men. Adjacent to it are several large cairns, and other relics pointing it out as the arena, in ancient times, of important military transactions. In the vicinity of Glen-Almond is a cave called the "Thief's Cave," from its having been the retreat of a noted sheepstealer called Alaster Baine, who at last was executed at Perth; and near this cave is a very curious natural pile of large stones, called "the Kirk of the Grove," in the vicinity of which stands a solitary aged pine, marking out the reputed sepulchre of Fingal's father. Towards the upper extremity of the pass before named is a stone of cubical form, eight feet high, said to point out the grave of the far-famed Ossian, the Caledonian bard.